What is the correct reason for nocturia in patients with chronic kidney disease?
(A) fluid overload with pressure naturesis
(B) Increased susceptibility to urinary tract infections
(C) Increased reliance on diuretics
(D) Chronic metabolic acidosis that disrupts tubular function
(E) Reduced urinary concentrating ability
E: RPA Course 2015
In Australia, Diabetes mellitus is the most common cause of chronic kidney disease. What is the second most common cause?
(C) Analgesic nephropathy
(D) Interstitial nephritis
B: CARI guidelines
What is the equation used in Australia to estimate glomerular filtration rate?
(D) Cystatin C
(E) Simpsons method
B: The MDRD equation has been found to overestimate the presence of CKD. RPA Course 2015
What is the mean age related decline in GFR after the age of 40?
B: 0.75-1ml/yr after the age of 40 N Engl J Med 2006; 354: 2473 - 83